Shuai Jiao, history

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Shuai Jiao, history

* As historic references, the development of the Shuai Jiao, was already BC. Indeed, under the Zhou Dynasty (1122 - 221 BC), was used as a training method of hosts, a role he would play throughout its entire history.

Under the Qin dynasty (221 - 207 BC) was a show extremely appreciated by the aristocracy. In 1975, was found in a tomb in Hubei province, a wooden comb attributed to that period, with an engraving depicting two wrestlers and a referee.

The first Shuai Jiao competitions took place in the early Christian era. These took an extraordinary boom in the Sui period (581 to 618 AD) which lasted over a month in the presence of the Emperor. Precisely dating the frescoes of that period found in the 492 caves of Mogao, the hill Mingsha of Gansu Province in central China, in the same we can see, many scenes related to the practice of wrestling.

During the Tang dynasty (618 - 907 AD), professional wrestlers are the first in the imperial court. The same Emperors, are often passionately devoted to the practice of Shuai Jiao. The most famous case is that of the Emperor Zhuang Zong of the Later Tang Dynasty (936 -946 AD) who lost a villa, in competition with General Li Cunxian great champion of the time. As a result of his victory Cunxian Li was also appointed governor of the prefecture of Weizhou.

During the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 AD), The Jiaoli Ji ( "Treaty on the fight") attributed to a certain Diao Luci, was devoted to Shuai Jiao, the treaty set out in a concise, history, theory and techniques. At that time many works of art mention, as the classic romance Shui Hu Zhuan ( "At the water's edge").

It is precisely at the time, in which Chinese women began the practice of Shuai Jiao, which shows the immense popularity enjoyed by the art at that time. They were particularly famous sisters Xiao Hei and Sisters. Just as Sai Gansu fighter.

During the Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368 AD) period of Mongol domination, the Shuai Jiao receives influences safely Boke (Fight Mongol). It also banned the arts which include fist and kicking techniques. What would later become more popular struggle.

With the fall the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, witnessing a resurgence of boxing styles of the Ming dynasty (I368 - 1644 AD), which would come to be called the golden age of Chinese martial arts . Many styles would be structured. However, and paradoxically, this period took place in a division manifested among wrestlers and boxers.

Under the reign of Emperor Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (the great free Wan Bao Quan Shu ( "Ten thousand treasures from the Book of Boxing") released under imperial edict, he devotes a study. The text then moves to Japan and possibly influence the development of Jiu Jitsu.

In 1638, Chen Yuan Yun an official of the Ming senior expert of Shuai Jiao and Qin Na (control techniques and dislocation), was sent to Edo (Tokyo) on a mission of protest at the continuing attacks inflicted by piracy Japanese and Chinese coasts at that time was a serious problem for the development of trade in the same challenging the very sovereignty.

After the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644, and the advent of the Qing Dynasty (1644 to 1911 AD) of Manchu origin, Chen Yuan Yun, harassed by the new government decides to take up residence in Japan. He teaches his art to three disciples of origin Samurai, one of whom, named Fukun founded his own school of Jiu Jitsu: the Kito Ryu, one of the sources of modern judo. Chen Yuan Yun died in 1671, and is buried in the temple Kenchuji, where there is a stele erected in his honor. It is also noteworthy to add that Shirobi Akiyama, founder of the school Yoshin Ryu was a Japanese physician who acquired their knowledge in ... China.

These Chinese influences in the creation of the Japanese martial arts, are a fact known to many practitioners and historians, following the powerful influence of the "Middle Kingdom" during that period.

It is under the Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911 AD), when the Shuai Jiao takes the form known today, introducing a new regulation is structured in different schools. The most famous of which, the school Shang Puying of the Imperial Court, had more than three hundred professional wrestlers, the Buku, representatives of the eight flags Manchus, which accounted for the Emperor's personal guard. Selected among the best fighters in the empire, regularly faced teams from all over the country, especially in Mongolia, whose fighters enjoyed a particular reputation. The best wrestler Buku received the title of Imperial, which involved significant privileges and rewards.

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, The Shang Puying was dispersed, giving rise to the three styles of Shuai Jiao present in our day: the Baoding style, the style of Beijing and Tianjin. These styles are essentially very similar and their differences are due more to the strategy that the technique itself.

Nowadays, Shuai Jiao is popular in mainland China and Taiwan. Every four years held a national competition and there are large number of provincial competitions. In fact, every social strata (workers, peasants) welcome new friends.

Thanks to the work of some Chinese teachers, the Shuai Jiao begins to make inroads in the martial arts scene in the West. In the United States began to develop several years ago, thanks to Master Chang Ken Dong, now deceased and his students, as well as in Europe and North Africa, through the Master's special dedication Yuan Zumou, currently residing in France and organized a tournament two years periodicity International Shuai Jiao "Ville de Paris" as well as national championships.

However, competition from other sports, like Olympic Judo and currently imported from the West make the preferences of young Chinese. As part our work, trying to educate the Chinese government to promote the Shuai Jiao properly, so that their ancient art, the patrimony of humanity, not get lost.

* excerpt from the book "Shuai Jiao, a traditional Chinese fighter" Yuan Zumou, Jose Luis Serra 1992 Editorial Alas "Barcelona